NASA image acquired August 31, 2010

In this natural-color image from August 31, 2010, the ocean’s canvas swirls with turquoise, teal, navy, and green, the abstract art of the natural world. The colors were painted by a massive phytoplankton bloom made up of millions of tiny, light-reflecting organisms growing in the sunlit surface waters of the Barents Sea. Such blooms peak every August in the Barents Sea.

The variations in color are caused by different species and concentrations of phytoplankton. The bright blue colors are probably from coccolithophores, a type of phytoplankton that is coated in a chalky shell that reflects light, turning the ocean a milky turquoise. Coccolithophores dominate the Barents Sea in August. Shades of green are likely from diatoms, another type of phytoplankton. Diatoms usually dominate the Barents Sea earlier in the year, giving way to coccolithophores in the late summer. However, field measurements of previous August blooms have also turned up high concentrations of diatoms.

The Barents Sea is a shallow sea sandwiched between the coastline of northern Russia and Scandinavia and the islands of Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, and Novaya Zemlya. Within the shallow basin, currents carrying warm, salty water from the Atlantic collide with currents carrying cold, fresher water from the Arctic. During the winter, strong winds drive the currents and mix the waters. When winter’s sea ice retreats and light returns in the spring, diatoms thrive, typically peaking in a large bloom in late May.

The shift between diatoms and coccolithophores occurs as the Barents Sea changes during the summer months. Throughout summer, perpetual light falls on the waters, gradually warming the surface. Eventually, the ocean stratifies into layers, with warm water sitting on top of cooler water. The diatoms deplete most of the nutrients in the surface waters and stop growing. Coccolithophores, on the other hand, do well in warm, nutrient-depleted water with a lot of light. In the Barents Sea, these conditions are strongest in August.

The shifting conditions and corresponding change in species lead to strikingly beautiful multicolored blooms such as this one. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA’s Aqua satellite acquired this image.

NASA image courtesy Norman Kuring, NASA Ocean Color Group. Caption by Holli Riebeek.

Instrument: Aqua - MODIS

Click here to see more images from  NASA Goddard’s Earth Observatory

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center  is home to the nation's largest organization of combined scientists, engineers and technologists that build spacecraft, instruments and new technology to study the Earth, the sun, our solar system, and the universe.

Follow us on Twitter

Join us on Facebook

Teal organizations – How to research cultural transformation?

When researching on digital transformation a common question is "is there an ideal organizational format for the digital world?". I think there is not, as long as people do understand how the digital age works and take appropriate action. However, we can observe that the question of how an organization can achieve a higher degree … Continue reading Teal organizations – How to research cultural transformation?


Stages in Digital Business Transformation – MCIS Research Paper

Last week I went to Cyprus to attend the Mediterranean Conference on Information Systems (MCIS) and present my research paper there.  The research is based on the data I gathered within the digital maturity & transformation study. I uploaded the paper presentation on Slideshare and if you are interested in reading the full research paper, … Continue reading Stages in Digital Business Transformation – MCIS Research Paper